Start Menu tiles are missing even though the applications are still present on the server and can be launched from File explorer.
Sometimes the captions for the Windows tiles might get distorted.
The issue is caused by incorrect automatic optimization process.
Please revert the affected server to the snapshot / backup you took prior to its deployment.
When enabling optimization during the deployment, please switch its mode to Manual, go to Windows advanced options and disable option Remove Common program groups from the Start Menu: